In 1910, history took a drastic turn when the Korean Empire, which had maintained its independence for centuries, was annexed by Japan. The Japanese government attempted to eradicate all traces of Korean culture and identity, thus brutally enforcing policies that oversaw widespread tragedy. Not only was the Korean language banned and replaced with Japanese, but any attempt at protest was forcefully put to an end, and cultural artifacts were destroyed. In 1919, Korean activists, students, and citizens began what is now known as the March 1st Movement, where it is estimated that 7,500 were killed, 16,000 wounded, and 46,000 arrested. This set the tone for the remainder of Japanese rule, and many Koreans moved to Japan to seek out better opportunities.